Monday, December 20

Causes of bedwetting in adults

A small percentage (2-3%) of adults suffer from bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis). This involuntary voiding of urine during sleep in many cases indicate a urological disorder and it can be treated in most cases if the causes are known.

Weakened muscles are causes of bedwetting in adults

Weakening of urethral sphincter muscles and pelvic floor muscles due to old age, lack of exercise or prolonged illness requiring rest, may lead to involuntary voiding of urine during sleep. In such situation the affected person may have difficulty in holding urine in the daytime also and in some cases urine may keep dripping in the daytime.

Insufficient antidiuretic hormones - causes of bedwetting in adults

Urine production in the night is slowed down by antidiuretic hormone produced by the body. In some cases there may be imbalances in the hormone production due to varied reasons and result in bladder filling beyond its capacity in the night resulting in voiding of urine in sleep.

Diabetes - causes of bedwetting in adults

In persons suffering from diabetes the body increases the urine output to eliminate the excess of blood sugar. In such cases the bladder gets filled up fast and in night and may void during sleep.

Diuretic medicines causes of bedwetting in adults

In certain health disorders diuretic medicines are prescribed to get the body rid off excess fluid and/or sodium. In such persons taking diuretic medicines in the evening or night causes nocturnal enuresis.

Diseases of the urinary tracts

Infection or cancer in the urinary tract or bladder causes frequent and urgent need for urination and the bladder may void during sleep.

Certain diets and beverages are causes of bedwetting in adults

Caffeine in coffee and other beverages has diuretic effects. Alcohol also has diuretic effects and may stimulate voiding bladder during sleep. Higher doses of vitamins like vitamin B6 and C and minerals like potassium have diuretic effects and may cause nocturnal enuresis.

Psychological causes of bedwetting in adults

Stress, trauma, anxiety, fear, emotional imbalance, Alzheimer's disease or psychological disorders can result in nocturnal enuresis.

Pressure on bladder - causes of bedwetting in adults

In pregnancy, prostate gland enlargement or cancer, chronic constipation or obesity, continuous pressure may be exerted on the bladder and this may result in nocturnal enuresis.

Genetic predisposition - causes of bedwetting in adults

It is found that some people are genetically predisposed for nocturnal enuresis. Children of parents suffering from nocturnal enuresis have greater risk of getting nocturnal enuresis. Some persons with genetic predisposition start nocturnal enuresis in their childhood and continue through their adulthood.

Obstructive sleep apnea - causes of bedwetting in adults

In obstructive sleep apnea, the affected persons hold their breath for brief periods during their sleep. In such adults increased urine production as well as pressure on the abdomen causes bedwetting.

Sunday, December 19

Causes of bedwetting

Bedwetting is the most common pediatric problem and the causes are many. One of the most common causes of bedwetting is the delay in neurological development.
The nervous system may be slow in developing and may be slow in processing the sense of full bladder. The development of the endocrine function in production of antidiuretic hormone may be slow and urine may be produced at the same rate both in the day and night. Genetic mark up also plays a big role and causes bedwetting in children.

Children of parents who had bedwetting problems are at the high risk of bedwetting. Lack of bed-time hygiene like urinating before going to bed and avoiding drinking too much liquids before bed-time can lead to nocturnal enuresis. The causes listed above are usually associated with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and in secondary nocturnal enuresis (SNE), infections, diseases, physical abnormalities or psychological disorders may be the causes.

Infections and diseases of the urinary bladder can lead to secondary nocturnal enuresis with impaired bladder control and increased chances of even daytime enuresis. There can be urinary tract abnormality or smaller than normal bladder in some persons which causes secondary nocturnal enuresis. In many instances this type of physical abnormality can be corrected by surgical procedures.

In some children chronic constipation causes bedwetting due to pressure on the bladder. Use of diuretic medicines and chemicals, alcohol or caffeine increases the chances for secondary nocturnal enuresis. The abnormal function of hypothalamus in production of preprohormone precursor or its storage in vesicles at the posterior pituitary can affect the production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

Insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), Arginine vasopressin (AVP), can lead to uniform rate of production of urine both in the day and night which causes secondary nocturnal enuresis. Psychological issues, especially in children, like death in the family, physical abuse or extreme ill-treatment may lead to secondary bedwetting in children.

Life stresses like moving to a new place, conflict in the family, divorce in the family, new school, newborn in the family or loss of pet can be the causes of bedwetting. It is very likely that children with ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) show secondary bedwetting.

Secondary nocturnal enuresis is one of the symptoms of pediatric neuropsychological disorder called PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections). Persons affected by sleep walking in many instances also suffer from secondary nocturnal enuresis and may even urinate while sleepwalking. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by abnormal pauses in breathing, sometimes causes secondary bedwetting.

Thursday, December 16

Bedwetting problems

Bedwetting is involuntary urination problem during sleep even after the age when usually bladder control occurs. Bedwetting is the most common urological problem in children and a frequent pediatric health issue.
Most bedwetting is not an illness or emotional problem and it is only a developmental delay of bladder control. The medical term for bedwetting (also spelled as bedwetting) is nocturnal enuresis, which can be primary or secondary. Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) occurs when the child has not yet had fairly long period of being dry in the bed during sleep.

In secondary nocturnal enuresis (SNE) a child or an adult starts having bedwetting problem after having remained dry for considerable time. Secondary nocturnal enuresis is usually a medical condition involving emotional stress and/or bladder infection. As the infant grows, the nerve-muscle coordination as well as control of urine production develops.

Two physiological body functions prevent the problems of bedwetting and help a person stay dry during sleep. In human body, there is a hormonal control and suppression of urine production during the night Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neurohypophysial hormone which has antidiuretic action, is released by body after dusk.

This hormone release reduces the urine output and the bladder is not full until morning. However this hormone cycle is not present at birth and a child starts developing it around the age of two years. Many children have the hormone cycle fairly developed by six years while for some the development may extend up to puberty while for a few it may not develop at all.

The body function contributing to bladder control in sleep is 'getting awake when the bladder is near full'. This sense of awakening when the bladder is full, also develops during two to five years of age but is independent of hormone cycle. Bedwetting problems are encountered more in boys than girls and usually girls start staying dry by sixth year while boys start staying dry by seventh year.